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A recent study showed that individuals with low activity in the anterior cingular cortex, a region associated with behavior regulation, were twice as likely to repeat offenses .
Further evidence shows that men with smaller amygdala are three times more likely to commit violence .
Reactions, motives, and emotions have been quantified through several data sets collected by criminology researchers, many providing evidence that both the environment and hereditary inheritance can play a critical role in the development of anti-social behavior exhibited by psychopaths.
Psychopaths are often perceived as maniacal, emotionally driven individuals prone to committing crimes of passion.
Researchers found that children with high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to demonstrate aggression, indicative that genotype can dictate an individual’s reaction to environmental stimuli .
Uncovering the “anatomy of violence” has revolutionized neurocriminology, and the questions raised by further developments far transcend disciplinary bounds, evoking ethical concerns applicable to court systems .
Subsequent studies surrounding the MAOA gene set to understand why certain socially maltreated children develop anti-social behavior, whereas others do not.
The prevalence of individuals predisposed to several genetically anti-social factors that do not demonstrate psychopathic behavior makes it clear that genetics and biological traits cannot solely be held responsible for violence .
Consequently, as courts begin implementing leniency within sentences to account for these biological links, it is critical to consider the danger that accompanies sentences that are too mild .  Raine, “Features of Borderline Personality,” [Page 277].
Still, the question remains if whether controlling environmental elements is enough to mitigate the effects of genetically coded predispositions for violence.
Risk assessment investigates this question through biology.Delving deeper still, certain researchers have identified particular genes coding enzymes linked to aggression. Kaye of Penn State across generations in a Dutch family investigated the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene located on the X chromosome .