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Conversely, as is more commonly the case, the stalker has no antipathic feelings towards the victim, but simply a longing that cannot be fulfilled due to deficiencies either in their personality or their society's norms. This research culminated in one of the most comprehensive books written to date on the subject.It is considered the "gold standard" as a reference to stalking crimes, victim protection, safety planning, security and threat assessment published by CRC Press, Inc., in August, 2001.Next, she discusses how victims might view certain form of stalking as normal because of how gender influences the acceptability of certain behaviors.It is also important to note that she mentions how in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States strangers are viewed as more dangerous when it comes to stalking than a former partner.She also mentions coercive control theory, "future research will be needed to determine if this theory can predict how changes in social structures and gender-specific norms will result in variations in rates of stalking for men versus women over time in the United States and across the world." Stalkers may have pre-existing psychotic disorders such as delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia.Most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression, adjustment disorder, or substance dependence, as well as a variety of Axis II personality disorders (such as antisocial, borderline, dependent, narcissistic, or paranoid).A UK Home Office research study on the use of the Protection from Harassment Act stated: "The study found that the Protection from Harassment Act is being used to deal with a variety of behaviour such as domestic and inter-neighbour disputes.It is rarely used for stalking as portrayed by the media since only a small minority of cases in the survey involved such behaviour." According to Lamber Royakkers: "Stalking is a form of mental assault, in which the perpetrator repeatedly, unwantedly, and disruptively breaks into the life-world of the victim, with whom they have no relationship (or no longer have).
These are: However, a January 2009 report from the United States Department of Justice reports that "Males were as likely to report being stalked by a male as a female offender.
Some of the symptoms of "obsessing" over a person may be characteristic of obsessive compulsive personality disorder.
The nonpsychotic stalkers' pursuit of victims can be influenced by various psychological factors, including anger, hostility, projection of blame, obsession, dependency, minimization, denial, and jealousy. D., an American researcher, crime analyst, and university psychology professor at San Diego State University investigated, as a member of the Stalking Case Assessment Team (SCAT), special unit within the San Diego District Attorney's Office, hundreds of cases involving what he called and typed "terrestrial" and "cyberstalking" between 19.
two phone calls to a stranger, two gifts following the victim then phoning them etc.
The Violence Against Women Act of 2005, amending a United States statute, 108 Stat.
In addition, the personality characteristics that are often discussed as antecedent to stalking may also produce behavior that is not stalking as conventionally defined.